We woke to a beautiful day, and after a quick breakfast, made our way back up the Janiculum Hill. At the top of Via Garibaldi, # 29, you will find the Mausoleo Ossario Garibaldino. Built on the site of Garibaldi’s battle for the defense of the Roman Republic, the beautiful monument was designed by the architect Giovanni Jacobucci, and houses the remains of those who died in the battles defending Rome, from 1849 to 1870. The monument was inaugurated in 1941, and houses the remains of approximately 200 of the soldiers who died in those battles, most of the remains anonymous, and found during various diggings. On the back wall, there is the sarcophagus of Goffredo Mameli, a young Genoese poet, who wrote the Italian National Anthem, and who died here in 1849, at the age of twenty-one.
The four braziers, found at the corners of the monument, are still lit during ceremonies and special occasions.
The Fontana dell’Acqua Paola, also known as Il Fontanone, dates from 1612, and was built to mark the end of the Acqua Paola aqueduct. Designed by Giovanni Fontana, it was built using marbles from the ruins of the Temple of Minerva, in the Forum of Nerva. At the top of the fountain, you will see the Papal tiara and keys, as well as the coat of arms of the Borghese family.
At the beginning of the Janiculum Hill promenade, there are two plaques, placed one above the other. The top one was put in place by the city of Montevideo, the capital of Uruguay, to honor the city of Rome, the “Mother of Latinity.” The lower one was put in place by the city of Rome, and the Bulgarian Embassy, as well as other organizations, in memory of the Bulgarian citizens who joined Garibaldi’s forces, and lost their lives in battle on the hill.
The hill is lined with busts of Italian patriots, as well as foreigners, who fought with either weapons or words, for the unification of Italy. There are a total of 84 busts adorning the walkway along the top of the hill, and I loved strolling along, admiring the art, while at the same time, paying tribute to the bravery and sacrifice these people made.
The Equestrian Monument to Garibaldi was designed by the sculptor Emilio Gallori, and stands on the highest point of the Janiculum Hill, in Piazza Garibaldi. The monument dates from 1895. Because the monument was inaugurated at a time when relations between the Italian government and the Vatican were strained, a popular Roman belief is that the monument was placed on the hill, in the position we see it, so that the horse would be offering its backside to the Holy See, as a snub.
The views of the city, from the piazza, are spectacular!
Next up: We explore more, including a trip to the Basilica of San Crisogono, where we head underground to see remains of the 4th century church, as well as ancient Roman houses!
Note: This blog is written in English and Spanish, and the author takes no responsibility for the quality of any other translations that may appear. If you have enjoyed this post, please, check out our archives for more posts from Rome, as well as other Italian destinations. Grazie!